I had one front hub where I installed the seal incorrectly, and dislodged the little spring that compresses the seal. It was binding between the base of the hub, and the base of the inner bearing. I couldn’t get the outside bearing and all the washers/nuts/cotter pins on.
Finally after pulling the rotor/hub off again I found my buffoonery.
Looks a little similar to your offset caliper. It doesn’t take much offset to mess up the caliper alignment.